Diabetes: causes and Symptoms and Caring Tips about it :
There are 2 Types of Diabetes ,In both types of diabetes, signs and symptoms are more likely to be similar as the blood sugar is high, either due to less or no production of insulin, or insulin resistance. In any case, if there is inadequate glucose in the cells, it is identifiable through certain signs and symptoms. These symptoms are quickly relieved once the Diabetes is treated and also reduce the chances of developing serious health problems.
Type 1 Diabetes:
In type 1, the pancreas stop producing insulin due to autuimmune response or possibly viral attack on pancreas. In absence of insulin, body cells don’t get the required glucose for producing ATP (Adenosin Triphosphate) units which results into primary symptom in the form of nausea and vomiting. In later stage, which leads to ketoacidosis, the body starts breaking down the muscle tissue and fat for producing energy hence, causing fast weight loss. Dehydration is also usually observed due to electrolyte disturbance. In advanced stages, coma and death is witnessed.
Type 2 Diabetes:
- Increased fatigue : Due to inefficiency of the cell to metabolize glucose, reserve fat of body is metabolized to gain energy. When fat is broken down in the body, it uses more energy as compared to glucose, hence body goes innegative calorie effect, which results in fatigue.
- Polydipsia : As the concentration of glucose increases in the blood, brain receives signal for diluting it and, in its counteraction we feel thirsty.
- Polyuria: Increase in urine production is due to excess glucose present in body. Body gets rid of the extra sugar in the blood by excreting it through urine. This leads to dehydration because along with the sugar, a large amount of water is excreted out of the body.
- Polyphegia : The hormone insulin is also responsible for stimulating hunger. In order to cope up with high sugar levels in blood, body produces insulinwhich leads to increased hunger.
- Weight flactuation : Factors like loss of water (polyuria), glucosuria , metabolism of body fat and protein may lead to weight loss. Few cases may show weight gain due to increased appetite.
- Blurry vision : Hyperosmolar hyperglycemia nonketotic syndrome is the condition when body fluid is pulled out of tissues including lenses of the eye, which affects its ability to focus, resulting blurry vision.
- Irritability : It is a sign of high blood sugar because of the inefficient glucose supply to the brain and other body organs, which makes us feel tired and uneasy.
- Infections : The body gives few signals whenever there is fluctuation in blood sugar (due to suppression of immune system) by frequent skin infections like fungal or bacterial or UTI (urinary tract infection).
- Poor wound healing : High blood sugar resists the flourishing of WBC, (white blood cell) which are responsible for body immune system. When these cells do not function accordingly, wound healing is not at good pace. Secondly, long standing diabetes leads to thickening of blood vessels which affect proper circulation of blood in different body parts.
The precise Etiology of most cases of diabetes is uncertain, although certain contributing factors are as follows:
Type 1 diabetes:
Type 1 Diabetes is autoimmune disease that affects 0.3% on average. It is result of destruction of beta cells due to aggressive nature of cells present in the body. Researchers believe that some of the Etiology and Risk factors which may trigger type 1 diabetes may be genetic, poor diet (malnutrition) and environment (virus affecting pancreas). Secondly, in most of the cases, diabetes occurs because there is abnormal secretion of some hormones in blood which act as antagonists to insulin. Example- Adrenocortical hormone, Adrenaline hormone and Thyroid hormone.
Type 2 diabetes:
Type 2 Diabetes is also called non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes. It occurs when the body produces enough insulin but cannot utilize it effectively. This type of diabetes usually develops in middle age. A general observation says that about 90-95 % of people suffering with diabetes are type 2; about 80 percent are overweight. It is more common among people who are older; obese; have a family history of diabetes; have had gestational diabetes. There are number of risk factors found to be responsible for type 2 diabetes like, the more the Etiology and Risk factors carried by an individual, the higher the risk for developing diabetes.
Following are the Causes of Diabetes
- Hereditary or Inherited Traits : It is strongly believed that due to some genes which passes from one generation to another, a person can inherit diabetes. It depends upon closeness of blood relationship as mother is diabetic, the risk is 2 to 3%, father is diabetic, the risk is more than the previous case and if both the parents are diabetic, the child has much greater risk for diabetes.
- Age : Increased age is a factor which gives more possibility than in younger age. This disease may occur at any age, but 80% of cases occur after 50 year, incidences increase with the age factor.
- Poor Diet (Malnutrition Related Diabetes) : Improper nutrition, low protein and fiber intake, high intake of refined products are the expected reasons for developing diabetes.
- Obesity and Fat Distribution : Being overweight means increased insulin resistance, that is if body fat is more than 30%, BMI 25+, waist grith 35 inches in women or 40 inches in males.
- Sedentary Lifestyle : People with sedentary lifestyle are more prone to diabetes, when compared to those who exercise thrice a week, are at low risk of falling prey to diabetes.
- Stress : Either physical injury or emotional disturbance is frequently blamed as the initial cause of the disease. Any disturbance in Cortiosteroid or ACTH therapy may lead to clinical signs of the disease.
- Drug Induced: Clozapine (Clozaril), olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel) and ziprasidone (Geodon) are known to induce this lethal disease.
- Infection : Some of the strephylococci is suppose to be responsible factor for infection in pancreas.
- Sex : Diabetes is commonly seen in elderly especially males but, strongly in women and those females with multiple pregnancy or suffering from (PCOS) Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.
- Hypertension : It had been reported in many studies that there is direct relation between high systolic pressure and diabetes.
- Serum lipids and lipoproteins : High triglyceride and cholesterol level in the blood is related to high blood sugars, in some cases it has been studied that risk is involved even with low HDL levels in circulating blood.
Diabetes can be a tough disease to handle. There are many reasons for it, firstly, causes of the disease are not clearly known, it is difficult to prevent. Secondly, once you get the disease, it is not possible to cure the same and you need to take care of your health for entire life. This task can be quite daunting; here are a few tips to help you.
Diabetic Care Tips
If you have diabetes, you need to take some precautions, in your day to day life as well and not only at those times, when you feel sick. Here are some precautions that you can take in your everyday life:
- You should monitor your blood glucose level regularly. Depending on the severity of your condition, your doctor would tell you about the intervals, in which you should take the test.
- You should take regular doses of medicine or insulin, as have been prescribed.
- Regular exercise proves to be useful in controlling glucose levels. However, you should avoid few exercises, that are known to cause further complications like cardiovascular diseases, hypoglycemia etc.
- In case your glucose level drops suddenly during or after exercise, you should consume a fruit juice or some similar drink that provides you with sugar.
- Weight reduction is a key of success in managing diabetes; hence take all the measures of carb control, what you can.
In case you are suffering from any ailment like flu, cold or any other disease or infection, some extra precautions need to be taken, to avoid further complications by diabetes:
- Check your blood sugar level more frequently, to ensure that no harm is being caused by diabetes.
- The illness may force some changes in your diet; consult your doctor/endocrinologist about the changes you need to make in your diabetes medicine accordingly.
- You should drink lots of water and other clear liquids.
- Remember not to cut yourself completely from food even if you are not experiencing hunger.
- Consult the doctor, if you feel abnormal in any manner. For example you may be feeling excessively sleepy, giddy, may have trouble with urination etc.
Even though diabetes is a chronic condition, the same does not mean, that you will have to avoid every activity you enjoy, once you contract it. You can have the same amount of fun, provided, that you take certain precautions. Remember, if you have diabetes, you cannot ignore the precautions, nor do you need to get bogged down completely by them.